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Pakistan’s Actual Independence Date 14th August or 15th August? – Mystery Solved

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More than seventy years have passed since the independence of the subcontinent. During this long period of time, we have been unaware of many aspects of our history. We celebrate our Independence Day on August 14 every year and our neighboring country India, which got independence with us, celebrates on August 15 every year, and every year the question arises that the two countries which became independent together then why their dates are different?

If we were liberated on August 14, 1947, then why is the date of Independence Day written on stamps issued 11 months after independence, August 15, 1947? And if Pakistan became independent on August 15, 1947, then why did we celebrate the first anniversary of independence on August 14, 1948, instead of August 15? And most of all, why are these birthdays being celebrated on August 14 instead of August 15?

The most important document in this regard is the Indian Independence Act 1947, which was passed by the British Parliament and ratified by the British Emperor George VI on 18 July 1947. A copy of this law was sent to Quaid-e-Azam on 24 July 1947 by the Secretary-General of Pakistan, Chaudhry Muhammad Ali (who later became the Prime Minister of Pakistan).

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This law is on page 234 of Volume 12 of ‘The Transfer of Power’, a document published by the British Government in 1983, and its translation was made by Jinnah Papers, published by Quaid-e-Azam Papers Project, Cabinet Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad. This is clearly stated in the law.

  • From August 15, 1947, two independent sovereign states will be established in British India, which will be named India and Pakistan respectively.
  • Later in the law, ‘these states’ means new states, and ‘proposed day’ means August 15.

The British government announced that both Pakistan and India would be free at the same time, on August 15, 1947, at zero hours. But the problem was that Lord Mountbatten had to declare India’s independence in New Delhi on the night between 14 and 15 August 1947. The elected government was to transfer power and he himself becomes the first Governor-General of independent India.

The solution was to have Lord Mountbatten visit Karachi on August 13, 1947, and address the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on the morning of August 14, 1947, to complete the transfer of power and announce that between 14 and 15 August 1947 night, Pakistan will become an independent state.

So that’s what happened. On August 13, 1947, Lord Mountbatten visited Karachi and on the same night, a dinner was given in his honor at the Governor General’s House in Karachi. Addressing the gathering, Muhammad Ali Jinnah said:

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“I am very happy to suggest the name of the country. This is a very important and unique opportunity. Today, full power is about to be transferred to the people of India and on the appointed day of 15th August 1947, two independent and sovereign states Pakistan and India will come into being. This decision by the government will achieve the lofty goal that was the sole purpose of the Commonwealth.”

According to Lord Mountbatten’s Declaration of Independence, at midnight between 14 and 15 August 1947, at 12 o’clock in the night, a free and independent and the largest state in the Islamic world, Pakistan, was added to the world map. At the same time, Pakistan’s independence was announced from Lahore, Peshawar, and Dhaka by the Pakistan Broadcasting Service.

On the morning of August 15, 1947, the transmission of Radio Pakistan Lahore started at 8 o’clock. After the recitation of Quranic verses, English news started which was read by newsreader Nubi. At 8:30 a.m. after the news, a message was broadcasted of Jinnah’s that had already been recorded. (An audio clip of this speech is available on YouTube.)

Jinnah’s speech began with these words:

“It is with feelings of greatest happiness and emotion that I send you my greetings. August 15 is the birthday of the independent and sovereign State of Pakistan. It marks the fulfillment of the destiny of the Muslim nation which made great sacrifices in the past few years to have its homeland. “

On the same day, the morning of August 15, 1947, the newspapers published special issues on the occasion of Pakistan’s Independence Day and the popular English newspaper Dawn started its publication from Karachi. The title of this special post was: “May Pakistan prosper always – Lord Mountbatten.”

On the same day, the 15th of August 1947, the first Gazette of Pakistan was issued which reported the appointment of Muhammad Ali Jinnah as the Governor-General of Pakistan and his assumption of office from the same day, and on the same day, members of Pakistan’s first cabinet, led by Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan, also took the oath of office.

From all these documentary evidence, it is clear that Pakistan did not come into being on August 14, 1947, but on August 15, 1947.

In the first year of Pakistan’s existence, no one had any ambiguity as to when Pakistan became independent. This is further strengthened by the fact that on 19 December 1947, the Home Department of Pakistan, in its letter 17/47, declared 15 August 1948 as the National Holiday.

In the first quarter of 1948, the Pakistan Postal Department began designing and printing Pakistani stamps. These stamps were presented for sale on July 9, 1948. The date of Pakistan’s Independence Day was also written on them, which was August 15, 1947. It seems that by the time these stamps were designed and sent to the UK for publication, it was certain that Pakistan had become independent on August 15, 1947.

So when did Pakistan’s Independence Day change from August 15 to August 14?

A meeting of the Cabinet was held in Karachi on Tuesday, June 29, 1948, under the chairmanship of Prime Minister Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan. It was decided in the meeting that Pakistan’s first Independence Day celebrations should be held on August 14, 1948, instead of August 15, 1948.

Prime Minister Liaquat Ali told the cabinet that the decision is not final, he would bring the matter to the notice of the Governor-General and any final decision would be taken after Jinnah’s approval.

The file containing the details is numbered 196 / CF / 48 and the case number is 393/54/48. This file is written in English in action:

The file does not mention who motivated the proposal and what arguments were put forward to celebrate Independence Day on August 14 instead of August 15. At the end of the proceedings, it is written in brackets that “Quaid-e-Azam has approved the suggestion.”

The next order number in the file is 15/2/48 which was issued on 13 July 1948 and was signed by Ahmed Ali, Deputy Secretary to the Government of Pakistan. The order stated that the country’s first Independence Day celebrations would be held on August 14, 1948. The day will be a public holiday across the country and national flags will be flown at all government and public buildings.

The next order preserved in the file was issued on July 14, 1948, and its DO number is 390 / CB / 48. In it, Shujaat Usman Ali (Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet) has addressed Khan Bahadur Syed Ahmed Ali, Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Home Affairs, and informed him about this.

The Cabinet decision was implemented and Pakistan’s first Independence Day celebrations were held across the country on August 14, 1948. The practice of celebrating Pakistan’s Independence Day on August 14 instead of August 15 continues to this day and it has gradually established that Pakistan became independent on August 14, 1947, not August 15, 1947.

However, a study of the above documents largely confirms that Pakistan’s first cabinet did not change Pakistan’s date of independence but only decided that Pakistan’s Independence Day celebrations should be held on August 14 instead of August 15 each year and Quaid-e-Azam had also endorsed the decision.

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Will Pakistan Recognize and Accept Israel?

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The Muslim world is at a new turning point in history. The distance between Arabia and Israel seems to be closing. Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu and Saudi Crown Prince have met. The US Secretary of State was also present at the meeting in Saudi Arabia. The world media is shouting at this meeting. If this news is true then it is a great development in world politics. The UAE, Bahrain, and Sudan have already joined Israel. What color will this friendship with Israel bring to the Arabs? Why are the Arab countries so anxious to embrace yesterday’s enemy? Will Pak-Israel anger last forever?

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While the new global political development is a source of joy for the minority, it is also a source of unhappiness for the majority. Questions about recent developments also need to be answered. Experts say the meeting took place and that Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu arrived in a private jet with the Mossad chief. He met secretly with the Saudi Crown Prince. The problem is that the results of the recent US election have upset many countries, including Saudi Arabia. After Biden’s victory, Saudi Arabia fears what the new US president will do. Saudi Arabia wants the support of the Israeli lobby in the United States. Saudi Arabia has extended a hand of friendship to both Turkey and Israel. Saudi Arabia does not want its relations with the United States to rupture. Will Saudi Arabia’s efforts work?

The first is that US foreign policy has implications. Four Muslim countries were destroyed by US foreign policy. Libya was devastated by Obama and Hillary. Had it not been for Russia and Hezbollah behind Assad in Syria, it would have been like Libya. The situation in Iraq and Afghanistan is also in front of everyone. The situation in Afghanistan and Iraq hurt the United States. Trump has not started new wars. Biden is under the influence of former US President Barack Obama. They are “dense” like them. Such people are dangerous. This threat is making the world restless.

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Iran has also linked Biden’s victory to goodwill. Iran hopes sanctions will be eased. Trade routes to Europe will open for Iran. Pakistan will also benefit from easing sanctions on Iran. Pakistan’s goods will go to Iran and Iran’s goods will come to Pakistan. Saudi Arabia wants to curb Iran’s influence in the region. If anyone can look Israel in the eye, it is Iran and Turkey. Saudi Arabia will not be made of Iran. It is said that the enemy of the enemy is the friend, Saudi Arabia is also going to sacrifice its long-standing policy under the same policy.

The question is, when Pakistan’s friends are raising the bar of love and friendship with Israel, will Pakistan lag behind in this race? Will Pak-Israel anger last forever? Prime Minister Imran Khan’s position on Palestine is the position of the nation, in which he said that our policy on relations with Israel is the same as that of the founder of Pakistan. The founders of Pakistan have always rejected relations with Israel. He used to say, “This is a dagger inserted in the heart of the Ummah. This is an illegitimate state which Pakistan will never recognize.”

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Our position cannot be linked to the position of the Arab League or the OIC. Our position is based on the position of the founder of Pakistan, Quaid-e-Azam. If Pakistan backs away from the Palestinian policy, it will deviate from the Kashmir policy. Pakistan is a non-Arab country that has taken part in two wars against Israel. Pakistan’s policy is clear and cannot be changed. But our Prime Minister is second to none in changing his stance on every issue. As soon as the news of the Saudi Crown Prince’s meeting with the Israeli Prime Minister came, a certain group in Pakistan was deployed to form a consensus to recognize Israel.

A lobby of specialized intellectuals and journalists has begun work on the “Acceptable” mission. The government has started throwing leaves through social media. The past shows that our Prime Minister jumps to great heights, in this case too. If that happened then his followers would accept it as a blessing.

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Can Kashmir be Removed from the UN agenda?

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After an illegal action of scrapping the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, India is now adamant to take the Kashmir issue off the agenda of the UNSC, terminating the hopes of the sovereignty of oppressed people in the disputed territory. Pakistan jogged India’s memory that Kashmir can not be removed from the agenda of the united nations security council (UNSC), which was determined to solving this dispute between Pakistan and India according to the desires of the Kashmiri people. Munir Akram, Pakistan’s permanent representative to the United Nations, while answering to the Indian move, said “Indian spokespersons either deceiving themselves or pulling the wool in their public eyes that they will get Kashmir out of the security council’s agenda”.

He said, “it will never happen”. He further brought to the light that the security council’s agenda was set in agreement with the established rules and procedures and could only be modified by a consensus of the members of the council and can not be altered unilaterally by a single member state.

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As the 75th session of the UN general assembly is to begin in New York later this month, it goes without saying that Pakistan will raise its voice and bring the miseries of the Kashmiri people to the mind of the world community to call for justice in the valley. India asked the UN to detach Kashmir from its agenda to refrain Pakistan from raising it at the 75th session of the United Nations General Assembly. India backing its move, in response to the report of the security council for 2019, complaining that Pakistan “keeps shoving for debate on an obsolete agenda thing in the council”.

Pakistan has raised the issue inside the council three times with the support of china since the illegal annexation of the valley. India’s argument that why it should be removed from the agenda of the council is hollow from the facts. As the UNSC does not acknowledge the Indian claim and treats the territory as an unsolved dispute. Furthermore, it has deployed its military observers on both sides of the Loc. Diplomatic sources told that India has been seeking for a long time to bring out the “Pakistan-India Question” from the agenda of UNSC. In spite of India’s long efforts, it has fallen through in its aim incessantly.

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One UN diplomate called the Indian claim as “weird” as he told the reality of removing any agenda item. He said, “it could be only possible if a dispute was solved or the consensus decision of the council”. However, the Jammu and Kashmir issue is not settled yet, rather, illegally annexed by the Indian state inspired by the Hindutva ideology of RSS, a Hindu extremist organization.

The ultimate goal of the Security Council, an important part of the UN, is to ensure international peace and stability, which calls for the list of unresolved issues of its agenda and can’t be removed even if one member state wishes to remove.

From the time, Kashmir issue was inscribed in its agenda, till today 16 resolutions are passed by the UN on Jammu and Kashmir. The illegal annexation of Jammu and Kashmir by fascist India was considered in its agenda “The Pakistan-India Question” on 16 August. The deployment of UNMOGIP was approved under the same agenda.

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UNMGOIP remains deployed in disputed territory between Pakistan and India, another confirmation that the dispute is still on the agenda of the security council. It checks and reports ceasefire infringements along the LOC in Kashmir, allowing the UNSC to stick to their guns. The military observers are present in disputed territory and violations are reported to the UNSC and the UNHQ. This proof unveils that this dispute is under the active consideration of the council and is not obsolete in any way.

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What can be the Possible Solution to Karachi’s Conundrum?

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As we all are apprised of the rack and ruin brought about by the inclement monsoon season in the metropolitan city of Pakistan, Karachi. The people of Karachi have been compelled to face severe losses in the wake of rain floods engulfed approximately the whole city. Despite severe losses due to the rain that has inflicted upon the people, one positive development has been witnessed as the masses are incensed with the management and administration of Karachi and the sense of raising their voices this time for the amelioration of the shambolic city is developed. Who is held responsible for the administrative fiasco in Karachi?

The city has not seen major development at the hands of ruling parties instead of the Musharraf era in which, under the watch of Mayor Karachi Mustafa Kamal, the city was leading ahead in the whole South Asian region in terms of development and progressive work. It is not wrong to say that the development Lahore has witnessed in 2013-2014, Karachi was enjoying in 2005, as ill-luck would have it, no further up-gradation in the city has seen till to date. Unfortunately, due to incompetence and politics, the financial hub of Pakistan and one of the largest cities in the world are enjoying the serendipity of trash. Due to power politics between PPP and MQM, the city is lagging in development and the masses are enduring a very difficult situation.

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Much to the sufferings of people, Karachi deserves a comprehensive and practicable solution to all the problems faced by the people. So, they can finally take a sigh of relief.

The concept of ‘Karachi a separate province’, as it is surfacing on social media and the minds of people, is utterly non-viable because it clashes the vested interest of the political parties and the administrative problems solely lie with the people not with the parties, and they will never allow laying their hands off of the hen who lay golden eggs as the slogan ‘Marso Marso Sindh Na Deso’ will start airing.

Although, if Karachi is made a separate administrative unit, to much extent, the management problems can be eradicated. But again the problem is the same.

The most viable and workable solution for the administrative fiasco in Karachi as well as for all the metropolitan cities is to develop ‘Local Body Structure’ as it is already established in major big cities of the world. For instance, London has its local body structure spearheading by mayor Sadiq khan who is responsible for all the issues occurring in the city, including sewage problems, transport, sanitation, policymaking, public safety, and water supply management.

We are still bound to the inherited ancient structure from the British and they moved to the new one local body structure in which the mayor is directly elected by the people and bestowed by a full-fledged authority to run the city’s affairs properly.

On the other hand in Pakistan, commissioners and deputy commissioners control all affairs of the city. At the time of crisis, people are blowing hot and cold to whom they go for their complaints, either go to chief ministries, the federal government, or powerless mayors. The masses should be directed to one person responsible for the city’s administration. Unfortunately, in Pakistan MNA’s are doing the work of pavement of streets and the concrete meant of roads which is highly contrary to their work as they are responsible for making laws in the national assembly.

The local body system set up in 2013 was hamstrung and completely failed as the powers were not devolved to the lower level of the institutions. We often saw the mayor of Karachi Waseem Akhtar crying for funds and imploring to the provincial government for funds to take the tasks to completion in the city. After the 18th amendment, the power and authority were given to provinces but the devolution of power to grass root level is not assured.

Karachi is plunged in a quagmire of different power holders like the Army handling some institutions, MNA’s of the ruling party, and the mayor of Karachi. As I aforementioned, who is held responsible for the failure, and people should know whose neck they are going to hold in time of crisis.

It is the need of the hour to make different administrative units to run this country efficiently and effectively as the administration becomes plain sailing. Our neighbor country India has nearly 36 administrative units, America has approximately 50 states and our brother country turkey has 81 provinces. So, by seeing these example its desideratum becomes quite evident.

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