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Hydro-Politics among Asian Powers



Water politics or hydro politics is an emerging theatre of conflicts in Asia, especially in Southern Asia. As the ex-vice president of the World Bank forecasted that many wars of the 20th century were fought for oil, but wars in the 21st century will be over water. With time, the scarcity of water is rampant due to various reasons like increase in population, melting of glaciers, wastage of water resources, lack of water storage capacity, etc. The agrarian countries are at high risk due to their dependency on agriculture exports. The depletion of water resources will bring formidable effects on agrarian societies. It has been predicted that in the future, the scarcity of water can be the cornerstone of another world war.

Pakistan is among those countries that are highly dependent on agricultural exports. Around 40% of the population is linked with the agriculture sector, which directly contributes about 17% to 21% in the GDP of Pakistan. The majority of land in Pakistan irrigated by the rivers that are originated from the Himalayas and Karakoram Ranges, which passes through the Kashmir territory to enter into Pakistan.

In the past, India tried to halt the water flow of the Pakistani rivers that originated from Kashmir, which had increased extreme tensions between both countries. If the World Bank had not intervened at that time, the possibility of war between India and Pakistan was very high. The World Bank assisted in settling the water dispute between the rival countries. The Indus Water Treaty was a landmark agreement that was signed in Karachi on 19 September 1960, by Jawaharlal Nehru and Ayub Khan. According to the treaty, Pakistan was given the control of the Western rivers Indus, Chenab, and Jhelum, while India got control over the Eastern rivers Beas, Ravi, and Sutlej. Further, Pakistan was given financial assistance to build a canal system to fulfill the water needs of the eastern side of the country.

According to the treaty, India was allowed to use only 16% of the Indus river water for its domestic use. India was not allowed to build any dam, barrage, or hydropower project that can affect the supply of water on western rivers. But we have seen many times that India explicitly violated the treaty by building dams and hydro projects on the rivers whose control was given to Pakistan. This is a clear violation of the treaty that has increased the confrontation level between both countries.

India built Uri-II on the Jehlum river and Baglihar dam on the Chenab river that manifest the awful intentions to drain the water of Pakistani rivers. These issues ware highlighted by Pakistan on international forums but no fruitful results emerged, and India continued building hydro projects to deplete Pakistan water resources. It was included in the election manifestation of the BJP to build maximum dams on Pakistani rivers to create mayhem for the latter’s economy. This manifests the pathetic thinking of the Indian government to create conflicts deliberately to gain political points in elections.

The Kishanganga hydroelectric plant scheme on the Kishan Ganga river, which is a tributary of the Jehlum river, will affect the flow of water towards Pakistan. It is examined by the experts that this project will highly affect the level of water in the Jehlum river. Pakistan took the matter to the International court to stop India from the development of this project. International Court allowed India to build the project but also made it obligatory to maintain the minimum flow of the river water. Pakistan collected the evidence that shows that India is violating the order of the court. Pakistan then requested the World Bank for arbitration, but India Emphasised for a neutral expert opinion, which Pakistan refused since it will not be an obligatory decision for India. The matter is still underway, and both countries are in a major conflict, which can bring a disastrous outcome.

India’s nefarious intentions are not limited to the northern rivers, but India is trying its best to harm Pakistan by all means, and that is why India is working with Afghanistan to build a dam on the Kabul River so that the water coming into Pakistan from the river could be stopped. Kabul river has vast importance for Pakistan because it irrigates a huge amount of land in KPK and Balochistan provinces. The dam on the Kabul river in Afghanistan will directly influence the economy of Pakistan. This issue is the basis for another confrontation course between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

India is creating hydro conflicts not only with Pakistan but also for Iran by providing Afghanistan with funds to develop Salma Dam on the Hari river that flows towards Iran. This dam will decrease the flow of the river exponentially, which will bring economic problems for Iran.

India and China are both highly populated countries and their water consumption is increasing rapidly. Both countries want to fulfill their needs by building a maximum number of dams to store the water for future use. Most of the rivers that flow into India originate from Himalaya and Karakoram mountains, and China. Due to the high level of demand for water in China, the government has launched various projects to build dams on the rivers that are flowing towards India. If China continues on the current path, India will be deprived-off from one-third of its water in the future. This can repeat the same episode of 1962.

South Asia is considered a boiling point due to various regional issues. Three nuclear countries in this region have a conflict with each other. Indo-Pak and Indo-China rivalry have brought devastating impacts to the South Asian population. The scarcity of freshwater will be the next big cause of confrontations among South Asian countries, and it seems like a war is inevitable.

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1 Comment

  1. Muhammad Islam

    May 24, 2020 at 3:44 am

    It is fantastic. Please keep it up.

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Huge Blast In Beirut Killed 10 People and Injured Hundreds [Watch Live Video] (Updates)



UPDATE (Wednesday): 

A bomb blast near the Lebanese capital, Beirut, has killed at least 78 people and injured more than 4,000. The Red Cross fears the death toll could rise sharply.

According to the international news agency, Lebanese Health Minister Hamad Hassan said that a great tragedy has taken place in Beirut. The death toll could rise many times over. At present, all the hospitals in the city are full of injured.

According to the local news agency, the blast took place in a warehouse where the confiscated explosives were kept. Lebanon’s interior minister says a preliminary investigation has revealed that the warehouse contained sodium nitrate seized from a ship a year ago and was to be disposed of. The blast was heard several kilometers away, and buildings shook in the distance.


A blast near the Lebanese capital, Beirut, has killed at least 10 people and injured hundreds, while hundreds of buildings and vehicles have been destroyed.

According to the International News Agency, a horrific explosion took place in the port area of ​​Beirut around 6 pm local time on Tuesday, as a result of which the surrounding areas shook and buildings and vehicles in different parts of the city were destroyed. According to the British News Agency, the destroyed buildings include the house of former Lebanese Prime Minister Saad Hariri.

According to the local news agency, the blast was caused by a fire in the warehouse of firecrackers, however, this claim has been denied at the official level. The blast was heard several kilometers away, and buildings shook in the distance. However, no details have been released about the cause and severity of the blast at the official level.

Earlier, Lebanese Health Minister Hamad Hassan confirmed that hundreds of people had been injured in the blast. In addition, photos and videos taken from nearby buildings at the site of the blast show the devastation caused by the magnitude of the blast and the smoke billowing into the surroundings.

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TikTok has been Given a Deadline to Reach an Agreement



The importance of TikTok is growing worldwide, which is why the American IT company Microsoft is also preparing for an agreement with Tiktok management. But US President Donald Trump has announced on July 31 that the Chinese mobile app Tiktok will be shut down in the country. They have announced a ban on the app under an executive order within a week.

After which IT company Microsoft gave Tiktok management 45 days to negotiate the agreement. Prior to the deal, Microsoft had hinted that it wanted to buy the Tiktok app in the United States.

The US security agency suspects that China is spying on people with this app and get access to users’ data after they install it on mobile phones, which is a threat to national security.

TikTok’s proprietary company, ByteDance, has said it does not share US consumer data with the Chinese government, but that the data is stored in the United States and Singapore.

Microsoft says it believes in looking closely at national security issues and protecting US economic interests in the process of buying Tiktok.

ByteDance said in a statement that the company is exploring all possibilities to continue streaming in the United States. In a memo, the company’s chief executive officer in Beijing, Zhang Yiming, said his team is working 24 hours a day to make the best results possible.

In the memo, Zhang said the current geopolitics and public opinion climate is becoming more complex. We have always fully protected our customers’ data.

On the other hand, US officials say that such assurances are meaningless because companies in China have no choice but to obey the Communist Party of China.

Tiktok is used all over the world, including the United States, which has been downloaded by 2 billion people, according to the statistics released so far, of which it has been downloaded more than 160 million times in the United States.

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CPEC & Chabahar Paving the Way for China’s Supremacy in the Region



The Cold War between the United States and China is still going on and it will go on for a long time until one wins. This war is to gain a hegemonic role in the region as well as in economic superiority. China is rapidly becoming an economic challenge to the United States, and its extraordinary growth has forced the United States to impose economic sanctions on China.

This annoyance of the United States is also an announcement of its undeclared defeat. In such a situation, it was inevitable for China to retaliate, which it did. The US president then made derogatory remarks against China itself. In response, the Chinese Foreign Ministry issued a “shut-up call” to the United States. The United States has banned Chinese technology company Huawei. It made it almost impossible for China to access 5G technology, but the frustration of the US increased when China made it clear to them that it had completed work on 5G technology with its own resources, and the shock of the ban on Huawei could easily be endured. Huawei has also begun to gain a foothold in Asian markets outside of US markets by improving its technology, while a report suggests that Huawei could also benefit from European markets.

ALSO READ: Global Power Dynamics and Pakistan’s Foreign Policy

According to US experts, Trump’s poor policies have widened the gap between China and the United States, which does not appear to be closing in the near future. According to them, the United States should have given China a tough time, to improve its trade, to go to more markets, to improve the situation in Africa, and convert it into a market as well. But imposing sanctions in this way will send a message to the world about the weakness of the United States system.

A large segment of the world still believes that the Coronavirus is a product of the US-China war, which is taking its toll on the world. It can be true but what is reality? Its secret will be revealed only after many years. At the moment, the situation is such that China has become a challenge for the United States in the region. The US thought that if it supports India both economically and militarily, it would give China a tough time. But here American research and calculations proved wrong. India could not give China a tough time in any field despite the support of the United States, on the contrary, it began to be alone in the region. A recent example of this is the major developments in Iran, where Iran has sidelined India and started making trade agreements with China.

ALSO READ: China-Iran Strategic Agreement & its impact on the Changing Geopolitical Alliances

According to a recent agreement, China will invest $400 billion in Iran over the next 25 years. Estimate how big this amount is when in 2018, our government needed only $6 billion to avoid default and run the country. The volume of CPEC of Pakistan and China is currently about $65 billion. Chabahar is almost 80 km from Gwadar. It is also a deep water port. Shortly after Pakistan and China launched CPEC, India announced work with Iran on the Chabahar port. India’s real intention was to sit here and promote proxy war in Pakistan and destabilize Pakistan. An example of this is the arrest of Kulbhushan Yadav and his revelations.

Iran was also in the anti-Pakistan camp because of India and its territory was also used against Pakistan. India’s sole purpose in this whole scenario was to use Chabahar to harm Pakistan and CPEC. While this situation was unacceptable for Pakistan, it was also unacceptable for China and that is why after a few years of hard work and backdoor diplomacy, Iran has now shaken hands with China and on the other hand, it has sidelined India from Chabahar projects.

ALSO READ: The Reality of ‘Shining India’ & Genocide of Muslims

According to Iran, India’s plan was to increase tensions for Pakistan from Chabahar. India was only talking verbally while Iran was spending money. Investment is a difficult task for Iran, which is mired in global sanctions. Therefore, keeping in view the situation, Iran has sidelined India and preferred friendship with China. Due to this situation, the Modi government in India is also being severely criticized that India has spoiled relations with its neighbors at the behest of America, while America has a history of not being anyone’s friend and it uses countries for its own purposes regardless of color, race, religion.

Recently, Iran’s ambassador to Pakistan has sharply criticized India without naming it. He said that when a country is reluctant to maintain relations with Iran and needs the permission of other countries for its normal relations, it is clear that it is not capable of long-term planning and implementation. He made the statement in view of the lack of seriousness of India’s Chahbahar to Zahedan rail project, in which India has been making statements, but in practice, it has done nothing.

ALSO READ: China’s Economic Revolution & World Power Politics

It is also clear that a new alliance is being formed in the region comprising China, Turkey, and Russia, which will include key countries in the region, including Malaysia. Pakistan is naturally present in this alliance because of Turkey and China and now Iran’s participation will further strengthen this alliance. However, due to US conspiracies, relations between Pakistan and Iran have not been good for a long time. Pakistan and Iran have been in separate camps since the Soviet war. Pakistan’s relations with Arab countries have also played a role in spoiling relations with its neighbors and on the other hand, the proxy war has left no stone unturned. The two countries have a long history of suffering, but now that China is investing heavily in Pakistan and Iran, so it is time for the two countries to mend their diplomatic and trade ties.

On the one hand, Pakistan can benefit from Chabahar, while Iran can also benefit from Gwadar and CPEC. India’s influence is also disappearing from Iran, so now Pakistan will also deal with Iran in different ways. As far as Saudi-Iranian relations are concerned, this ideological Cold War began after the Rightly Guided Caliphs, and will probably continue in the future. Therefore, the two countries must accept each other, respect each other’s religious views and, most importantly, get out of the abyss.

ALSO READ: How ‘Wuhan Model’ can help in Overcoming COVID-19 Devastation?

China is a strategic partner for Pakistan but on the other hand, it needs to be made with the United States as well. Iran is Pakistan’s neighbor and on the other hand, Pakistan has to maintain relations with Saudi Arabia. It is a double-edged sword in diplomacy that is extremely difficult to wield. But if Pakistan learns to wield this sword successfully and if we learn to balance relations, it will be a great achievement not only for Pakistan but for the region.

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